I’m just going to say this first: I hate linked list problems. But I also hate waking up, yet I do it every day anyways.

First, what is a linked list: an array that supports O(1) insertion and O(n) random access, in contrast to vector’s O(n) insertion and O(1) random access. Here’s how a linked list look like in real life:

oooOOOOOOOOOOO" o ____ :::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::: __|-----|__ Y_,_|[]| --++++++ |[][][][][][][][]| |[][][][][][][][]| | [] [] | {|_|_|__|;|______|;|________________|;|________________|;|_________|; /oo--OO oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Here’s how a linked list look like in C++:

struct ListNode { int val; ListNode* next; };

First, here’s the link to the Leetcode problem Reverse Linked List.

Like many other problems, linked list reversal could be achieved in two ways: iterative and recursive. The one thing we need to do is point all the “next” pointers backwards. Let’s look at iterative solution first.

ListNode* reverseList(ListNode* head) { ListNode* last = NULL; while (head) { ListNode* next = head->next; head->next = last; last = head; head = next; } return last; }

This code is trivially easy to write. I have found 2 slightly different ways to interpret what this code does, and you can see which one you find easier to understand.

The first way to look at it: imagine the linked list 1->2->3->NULL. Let () denote the last, and [] denote head. After the first iteration: NULL<-(1) [2]->3->NULL; NULL<-1<-(2) [3]->NULL, NULL<-1<-2<-(3), [NULL]. Essentially we used more variables to store the last and next guy, so we can transition without losing track of anybody. When head hits null, the last guy will be the new head.

The second way to look at it is to think of “last” as a new linked list. What we attempt here is to pop the first node of the original linked list, and insert it to the front of the new linked list. Therefore, “head” is the first node in the old linked list, and “last” is the first node in the new one. 1->2->3->NULL, NULL; 2->3->NULL, 1->NULL; 3->NULL, 2->1->NULL; NULL, 3->2->1->NULL. In a certain sense, this is describing exactly the same thing, but it might be more clear now why we return the “last” variable: it is the head of the new linked list.

OK, that’s not bad, let’s look at a recursive way. Hold back for a minute and think how do we reduce the problem size, given that we can handle a smaller case. Perhaps we can take the first node out, and reverse the rest. Now we need to insert the original guy into the back of the new list. Oh no, we do not know where the end of the new linked list is! How do we solve this?

pair<ListNode*, ListNode> helper(ListNode* head) { if (!head || !head->next) return make_pair(head, head); auto ans = helper(head->next); ans.second->next = head; head->next = NULL; ans.second = head; return ans; } ListNode* reverseList(ListNode* head) { return helper(head).first; }

This way is to instead of just writing the function with the given function signature, we write a helper function that also returns the pointer to the last node in the partially reversed list. In that way we can append to the list easily. But this is really not an elegant solution, as we can see in the next code snippet.

ListNode* reverseList(ListNode* head) { if (!head || !head->next) return head; ListNode* ans = reverseList(head->next); head->next->next = head; head->next = NULL; return ans; }

The solution is on line 5. The end of the partially reversed list used to be the first in the list, so it is pointed to by the current head. So setting head->next->next to head, we have appended head to the end, essentially creating a cycle. Therefore we break the cycle by setting head->next to NULL.

It all looks alright, code is 2 lines shorter and all that. But here’s the catch: although it is O(n) time, the recursive solution is not O(1) space. This is because by calling the function n times within itself, we have created n times the local variables in this function. What is the problem, you may ask? There are two: first, stack space is much more limited than heap space (dynamic memory allocation), so we might encounter stack overflow if the linked list is huge. This will not be a problem for the iterative solution. The second: if we could use so much space, why don’t we just store everything on an external vector and trivially random access everything? What is the whole point of using linked list anyways?

Despite my rant, some interviewers actually don’t care if you write recursion. They might even think it’s cleaner. So it’s still good to know.

For some trickier problems, a recursive solution (or at least a non-O(1) space solution) might be necessary. But if you can do it in O(1) space, you should prefer to do so, because using linear space for linked list problem is kinda cheating.

Now if you cannot wait to challenge yourself, you can try this one: Reverse Linked List II. It’s definitely more code than 10 lines though.